AUSTRALIA DAY by Margaret Tanner
The Australian flag shows the British Union Jack in the upper left and six white stars on a blue background
Captain James Cook (1728 – 1779) was born in Yorkshire, England. He was the man who discovered Australia. He led an expedition to the South Seas in command of the Endeavour. They sailed from Plymouth on the 26th August 1768 with a compliment of ninety four, including the Botanist, Joseph Banks. Sailing via Cape Horn they reached Tahiti on the 13th April 1769.
Cook had been instructed to determine the existence of a southern continent. He sailed to New Zealand in August, circumnavigated the islands, and charted the coastline and took possession of New Zealand for the British government.
On the 19th April, 1770, they spotted land at the south east of the Australian mainland. Cook continued sailing north, charting the coast as he sought a safe harbour for repairs to the Endeavour. They landed at Stingray Bay on the 29th April and renamed it Botany Bay. As he did with New Zealand, Cook claimed the great south land for the British government, who a few years later decided that this would be a great place to send their unwanted convicts, many of whom, because of overcrowding in the prisons because they could no longer be shipped off to America, were incarcerated in rotting hulks on the river Thames. Many were petty thieves, who were transported for what we would consider minor crimes – stealing a loaf of bread, shop lifting some hair ribbons. Others were political prisoners or innocent victims of an unjust and uncaring society, like Maryanne Watson, the heroine in my 1820’s novel, Savage Utopia, which is set against the background of transportation to the penal colony of Australia.
On the 26th January 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip, who guided the First Fleet to the island continent of Australia, claimed the Colony of New South Wales for the British Empire. He also became Governor of the colony. Slowly, a British society evolved based on the distinctions between convicts and free settlers.
The fledgling colony began to mark the anniversary of the 26th January 1788 with formal dinners and informal celebrations.
In 1817 when Governor Macquarie recommended the adoption of the name ‘Australia’ for the entire continent instead of New Holland, a new nation started to emerge. By the 1820’s, Australia began to prosper and Australian patriotism started to be expressed at gatherings. In the early days the colony was a small society of cliques, with severe social requirements and rigid class lines, but the stain of convict blood could not be completely obliterated even though many tried to hide their tainted past. Many ex-convicts prospered and their Australian born children began to see themselves as unique because of their upbringing and isolation from Europe.
Throughout the early nineteenth century, Foundation Day, as it was called, became known for sporting events. But the growing sense of patriotism was being expressed in by poets. On the 26th January 1824, poet, Charles Thompson paid tribute to his native country with a collection of poems even though his father had been transported to Australia as a convict.
In the summer of 1836, a group of seafaring Sydneyites decided to celebrate the founding of their new nation with a sailing regatta. The Australia Day Regatta is still held on Sydney Harbour on the 26th January each year and it has become the oldest continuous sailing regatta in the world.
SAVAGE UTOPIA published by Whiskey Creek Press
On board the convict ship taking them to the penal colony of Australia, Maryanne Watson and Jake Smith meet and fall in love, but Jake hides a terrible secret that will take him to the gallows if it ever comes out.
On arrival in Sydney the lovers are separated. Maryanne is sent to work for the lecherous Captain Fitzhugh. After he attacks her she flees into the wilderness and eventually meets up with Jake who has escaped from a chain gang. They set up home in a hidden valley and Maryanne falls pregnant. Will Jake come out of hiding to protect his fledgling family? And how can love triumph over such crushing odds?
Margaret Tanner is an award winning, multi-published, Australian historical romance writer who loves delving into the past. Her website is http://www.margarettanner.com/
Mahalo, Margaret, for sharing your celebration of Australia Day. In honor of Margaret, I am giving away a copy of Savage Utopia to one randomly selected commenter. To enter the book giveaway,
1. Leave a comment about Australia.
2. The giveaway is open only to US residents but ...
... I welcome comments from all readers - whether or not you are entering the contest.
3. Comments are open through Saturday, January 29, to enter the giveaway.
4. If you are an international reader, I am happy to share Aloha with you - send your mailing address to email@example.com to receive a Hawaiian treat.
Join us tomorrow for a historical classic, Victoria Alexander, as she celebrates her new book, THE PERFECT MISTRESS.
Kim in Hawaii
Of course our hearts go out to the Australians as they recover from the devastating floods. To help, log onto
During Captain Cook's third voyage to the South Pacific, he came across the Hawaiian Islands, which were uncharted at the time. Sailing into Waimae Harbor in January 1778, he is credited as the first European contact with the Hawaiians. Cook named the archipelago as the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of the Earl of Sandwich, the Lord Admiralty.
In 1779, during his third visit to the islands, he anchored in Kealakekua Bay on the Big Island of Hawaii. He came ashore during a religious feast and the Hawaiians mistook him for a returning deity. Yet Cook did not engage in the native custom of greeting with a kiss, so the Hawaiians referred to him as Haole, "no breath". Sadly, a dispute broke out between his crew and the Hawaiians, resulting in Cook's death. Part of his body were removed in customary native ceremony and the remainder returned to England for a burial at sea. His sailors initially erected a wooden cross at the spot of his massacre. In 1874, British sailors erected a white obelisk and Princess Likelike deeded the strip of land to the United Kingdom. Today, the obelisk is only accessible by a hiking trail or paddling across Kealakekua Bay.
|Notice the dolphins swimming in the |
foreground of the photo.
P.S. Captain Cook's father was Scottish.